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Hail – storm – heat stress

hail

The precipitation of hailstones is preceded by adventurous events within cumulonimbus clouds; the damage caused by the grains that eventually fall can, however, be manifold and can be exacerbated by typical weather conditions. With the force of their impact, hailstones can damage roofs and, with the appropriate wind conditions, also parts of the building on the sides. The functional impairment of drainage systems by hail precipitation also represents a particular danger. In construction projects, it is advisable to choose materials with sufficient hail resistance when it comes to impact protection. So are z. B. In addition to hail-resistant roof tiles, plain tile roofs are also recommended. In the case of materials such as plaster with the specified hail resistance class (HW), the respective number relates to the kinetic impact energy of a hailstone of a certain size; For example, HW 1 refers to a hailstone with a diameter of 10 mm, HW 2 to one with a diameter of 20 mm, and so on. The larger a “standard hailstone”, the higher the assigned HW calculation factors mass and speed.

storm

In order to prevent storm damage, sufficient fastening of the structural elements of roofs and facades is necessary. The suction forces of the wind have a particularly intense effect on corners and edges; This applies not least to flat roofs. Parts of the building that stand out from the outside, such as canopies, porches, bay windows, balconies, etc., offer potentially dangerous suction forces multiple opportunities to develop, so that – here too – attention should always be paid to the solid cohesion of the various building materials. When a storm is imminent, free-standing objects such as garbage cans, garden furniture or decorative items should be secured, and flower pots on the balcony can easily become a hazard. If the necessary precautionary measures have been taken and people and animals are safe, it is important to close the windows and doors. If you still want to build your house and avoid storm damage as far as possible in the future, you can consider the following: “There is a low risk with an optimal roof pitch of thirty degrees or between twenty and forty degrees, and a medium risk with a roof pitch between five and twenty degrees and a high risk with roof pitches that are less than five degrees and greater than forty degrees. “(Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Aid: Recommendations for Unwetter, Bonn 2015, p. 13f.)

Heat stress

The heat not only threatens critical conditions such as heat stroke, sunstroke or heat loss; Heat exhaustion can easily occur at elevated temperatures, e.g. B. due to loss of sweat without a compensatory supply of fluids. It is advisable to drink two to three liters a day, preferably water or herbal or fruit teas. The amount of water you drink must be adjusted during physical activity (the specific fluid requirement otherwise depends on weight, condition and age). The drinks should not be too cold so that the body does not generate additional heat; they can be at room temperature for healthy enjoyment. It is also important: When the outside temperature is high, always remember to never leave helpless people and animals in vehicles that are exposed to the heat: Depending on the model, vehicle interiors can already be opened by parking the car normally outside at summer temperatures of over 60 ° C reach.

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